|Coordinate||65,314,587 bp (GRCm38)|
|Base Change||A ⇒ G (forward strand)|
|Gene Name||pregnancy-associated plasma protein A|
|Synonym(s)||IGFBP-4ase, PAPP-A, PAG1, 8430414N03Rik|
|Chromosomal Location||65,124,174-65,357,509 bp (+)|
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a secreted metalloproteinase which cleaves insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). It is thought to be involved in local proliferative processes such as wound healing and bone remodeling. Low plasma level of this protein has been suggested as a biochemical marker for pregnancies with aneuploid fetuses. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008]
PHENOTYPE: Homozygous null mutants are smaller than normal with delayed ossification, but are otherwise normal and fertile. [provided by MGI curators]
|Amino Acid Change||Asparagine changed to Serine|
|Institutional Source||Beutler Lab|
|Gene Model||predicted gene model for protein(s): [ENSMUSP00000081545]|
AA Change: N1321S
|Predicted Effect||probably benign
PolyPhen 2 Score 0.055 (Sensitivity: 0.94; Specificity: 0.84)
|Meta Mutation Damage Score||0.05|
|Is this an essential gene?||Possibly essential (E-score: 0.518)|
|Candidate Explorer Status||CE: not good candidate; human score: -1; ML prob: 0.274|
Linkage Analysis Data
|Alleles Listed at MGI|
|Mode of Inheritance||Unknown|
|Last Updated||2019-05-22 12:09 PM by Diantha La Vine|
|Record Created||2019-01-22 2:12 PM by Bruce Beutler|
The Maennel phenotype was identified among G3 mice of the pedigree R4043, the males of which showed reduced body weights compared to sex-matched wild-type littermates (Figure 1).
|Nature of Mutation|
Whole exome HiSeq sequencing of the G1 grandsire identified 65 mutations. The body weight phenotype was linked to a mutation in Pappa: an A to G transition at base pair 65,314,587 (v38) on chromosome 4, or base pair 190,414 in the GenBank genomic region NC_000070. Linkage was found with a dominant model of inheritance, wherein one variant homozygote and four heterozygous mice departed phenotypically from five homozygous reference mice with a P value of 0.000371 (Figure 2).
The mutation corresponds to residue 4,330 in the mRNA sequence NM_021362 within exon 16 of 22 total exons.
The mutated nucleotide is indicated in red. The mutation results in an asparagine to serine substitution at position 1,321 (N1321S) in the PAPP-A protein, and is strongly predicted by Polyphen-2 to be benign (score = 0.055).
Pappa encodes pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A; alternatively, IGFBP4 protease or differentially expressed in placenta 1 [DIPLA1]), a member of the pappalysin subfamily of the metzincin protease family along with PAPP-A2 (see the record for Lilliputian) and ulilysin. PAPP-A is initially translated as a 1,624 proprotein; cleavage of the signal peptide and the propeptide (amino acids 23-80) generates the mature 1,544 amino acid peptide (1). PAPP-A has several domains, including a signaling peptide (amino acids 1-22), a laminin G-like domain, three Lin12/Notch repeats (LNRs), a metalloprotease region (amino acids 272-583), and five complement control protein (CCP) domains (alternatively, short consensus repeat [SCR] or Sushi domains; amino acids 1210-1279, 1280-1341, 1342-1409, 1410-1470, and 1473-1553) (Figure 3) (2).
The Maennel mutation results in an asparagine to serine substitution at position 1,321 (N1321S); Asn1321 is within the second CCP domain.
Please see the record caer for more information about Pappa.
PAPP-A is a secreted metalloproteinase that cleaves insulin-like growth factor binding protein 2 (IGFBP2), IGFBP4, and IGFBP5. The IGFBPs regulate the IGF-I signaling pathways by binding IGF-I. IGFBP5 also has IGF-I-independent functions. IGFPB5 is able to bind its putative receptor to enter the cytoplasm and subsequently interact with, and regulate, other proteins. IGFBPs are carrier proteins that regulate the bioavailability of insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) by prolonging their-half-life and circulation turnover. IGFs are essential for the regulation of growth and development by influencing the proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis of osteoblasts (3;4). IGFs bind to two types of receptors, IGF-IR and IGF-IIR, subsequently activating downstream tyrosine kinase pathways. In IGF-I-associated signaling, both the IRS-1/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/serine–threonine kinase pathway and the Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway are activated, which subsequently promote cell proliferation, tissue differentiation, and protection from apoptosis.
Pappa-deficient (Pappa-/-) mice showed reduced body sizes and weights (60 to 70% of wild-type mice) as well as delayed bone ossification (5). The phenotype of the Maennel mice mimics that of the Pappa-/- mice, indicating loss of PAPP-A function. PAPP-A functions as a growth-promoting enzyme through its role in cleaving IGFBPs (and subsequent release of bioactive IGF). IGFBP4 cleavage is required to activate most, if not all, IGF2-mediated growth-promoting activity.
Maennel(F):5'- CTTTGTAAGAACTGCCCAGCAC -3'
Maennel(R):5'- AGCGGCACTTACTTCTTGGAC -3'
Maennel_seq(F):5'- CAGCACACTCCAGAGATACTG -3'
Maennel_seq(R):5'- TTGGACTTCCGAGATGAGCCAG -3'
1. Haaning, J., Oxvig, C., Overgaard, M. T., Ebbesen, P., Kristensen, T., and Sottrup-Jensen, L. (1996) Complete cDNA Sequence of the Preproform of Human Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A. Evidence for Expression in the Brain and Induction by cAMP. Eur J Biochem. 237, 159-163.
2. Kristensen, T., Oxvig, C., Sand, O., Moller, N. P., and Sottrup-Jensen, L. (1994) Amino Acid Sequence of Human Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A Derived from Cloned cDNA. Biochemistry. 33, 1592-1598.
3. Govoni, K. E., Baylink, D. J., and Mohan, S. (2005) The Multi-Functional Role of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins in Bone. Pediatr Nephrol. 20, 261-268.
4. Mohan, S., Richman, C., Guo, R., Amaar, Y., Donahue, L. R., Wergedal, J., and Baylink, D. J. (2003) Insulin-Like Growth Factor Regulates Peak Bone Mineral Density in Mice by both Growth Hormone-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms. Endocrinology. 144, 929-936.
|Science Writers||Anne Murray|
|Illustrators||Diantha La Vine|
|Authors||Zhao Zhang and Bruce Beutler|