Phenotypic Mutation 'screamer6' (pdf version)
Allelescreamer6
Mutation Type missense
Chromosome16
Coordinate15,759,605 bp (GRCm38)
Base Change G ⇒ A (forward strand)
Gene Prkdc
Gene Name protein kinase, DNA activated, catalytic polypeptide
Synonym(s) slip, DOXNPH, DNA-PKcs, XRCC7, dxnph, DNA-PK, DNAPDcs
Chromosomal Location 15,637,866-15,842,235 bp (+)
MGI Phenotype FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes the catalytic subunit of the DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). It functions with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer protein in DNA double strand break repair and recombination. The protein encoded is a member of the PI3/PI4-kinase family.[provided by RefSeq, Jul 2010]
PHENOTYPE: Mutations at this locus effect genome stability, radiation sensitivity and DNA repair. Nonsense (scid) and null homozygotes have severe combined immunodeficiency. A BALB/c variant allele reduces enzyme activity and predisposes to breast cancer. [provided by MGI curators]
Accession Number

NCBI RefSeq: NM_011159; MGI:104779

Mapped Yes 
Amino Acid Change Aspartic acid changed to Asparagine
Institutional SourceBeutler Lab
Gene Model predicted gene model for protein(s): [ENSMUSP00000023352]
SMART Domains Protein: ENSMUSP00000023352
Gene: ENSMUSG00000022672
AA Change: D2372N

DomainStartEndE-ValueType
low complexity region 125 138 N/A INTRINSIC
low complexity region 1253 1263 N/A INTRINSIC
low complexity region 1508 1522 N/A INTRINSIC
NUC194 1810 2206 2.37e-246 SMART
SCOP:d1gw5a_ 2210 2493 5e-3 SMART
low complexity region 2669 2681 N/A INTRINSIC
low complexity region 2841 2855 N/A INTRINSIC
Pfam:FAT 3024 3470 8.2e-75 PFAM
PI3Kc 3749 4068 3.67e-86 SMART
FATC 4096 4128 1.57e-9 SMART
Predicted Effect probably damaging

PolyPhen 2 Score 1.000 (Sensitivity: 0.00; Specificity: 1.00)
(Using ENSMUST00000023352)
Meta Mutation Damage Score 0.8075 question?
Is this an essential gene? Probably essential (E-score: 0.951) question?
Phenotypic Category
Phenotypequestion? Literature verified References
FACS effector memory CD4 T cells in CD4 T cells - increased
T-dependent humoral response defect- decreased antibody response to rSFV
Candidate Explorer Status CE: excellent candidate; human score: 2.5; ML prob: 0.666
Single pedigree
Linkage Analysis Data
Penetrance  
Alleles Listed at MGI

All mutations/alleles(32) : Chemically induced (ENU)(6) Gene trapped(17) QTL(1) Spontaneous(2) Targeted(5) Transgenic(1)

Lab Alleles
AlleleSourceChrCoordTypePredicted EffectPPH Score
IGL00157:Prkdc APN 16 15697226 missense probably damaging 1.00
IGL00225:Prkdc APN 16 15809644 missense possibly damaging 0.64
IGL00481:Prkdc APN 16 15790466 missense probably benign 0.41
IGL00488:Prkdc APN 16 15775847 splice site probably null
IGL00489:Prkdc APN 16 15799926 missense possibly damaging 0.51
IGL00579:Prkdc APN 16 15664239 missense probably damaging 1.00
IGL00587:Prkdc APN 16 15652358 splice site probably benign
IGL00666:Prkdc APN 16 15736835 missense probably damaging 1.00
IGL00675:Prkdc APN 16 15787158 missense probably benign 0.05
IGL00708:Prkdc APN 16 15779426 missense probably damaging 0.97
IGL00725:Prkdc APN 16 15816639 missense probably benign 0.10
IGL00818:Prkdc APN 16 15759754 missense possibly damaging 0.92
IGL00917:Prkdc APN 16 15739564 missense probably damaging 0.98
IGL00990:Prkdc APN 16 15702115 missense probably benign 0.03
IGL01126:Prkdc APN 16 15669321 missense probably benign 0.01
IGL01141:Prkdc APN 16 15726704 missense probably damaging 0.99
IGL01306:Prkdc APN 16 15667731 missense possibly damaging 0.67
IGL01326:Prkdc APN 16 15829692 missense probably benign
IGL01335:Prkdc APN 16 15816896 critical splice donor site probably null
IGL01419:Prkdc APN 16 15835166 missense probably damaging 1.00
IGL01434:Prkdc APN 16 15713587 missense probably benign 0.00
IGL01554:Prkdc APN 16 15652302 missense probably benign 0.05
IGL01671:Prkdc APN 16 15667745 missense possibly damaging 0.90
IGL01871:Prkdc APN 16 15783087 missense probably benign 0.00
IGL01874:Prkdc APN 16 15734994 missense possibly damaging 0.89
IGL01930:Prkdc APN 16 15698887 missense probably damaging 1.00
IGL01984:Prkdc APN 16 15708779 missense probably benign
IGL02121:Prkdc APN 16 15717184 missense probably benign 0.18
IGL02152:Prkdc APN 16 15669285 missense probably benign 0.15
IGL02172:Prkdc APN 16 15809759 missense probably benign 0.10
IGL02336:Prkdc APN 16 15785978 missense possibly damaging 0.47
IGL02336:Prkdc APN 16 15785979 missense probably benign 0.01
IGL02393:Prkdc APN 16 15816758 missense probably benign 0.42
IGL02406:Prkdc APN 16 15670535 missense probably benign 0.00
IGL02500:Prkdc APN 16 15714282 critical splice donor site probably null
IGL02568:Prkdc APN 16 15726542 missense probably damaging 0.98
IGL02579:Prkdc APN 16 15670601 missense possibly damaging 0.83
IGL02652:Prkdc APN 16 15783087 missense probably benign 0.00
IGL02661:Prkdc APN 16 15769825 missense possibly damaging 0.92
IGL02685:Prkdc APN 16 15836043 missense possibly damaging 0.61
IGL02741:Prkdc APN 16 15752726 splice site probably benign
IGL02803:Prkdc APN 16 15833666 splice site probably benign
IGL02866:Prkdc APN 16 15831327 missense probably damaging 1.00
IGL02882:Prkdc APN 16 15651519 nonsense probably null
IGL02989:Prkdc APN 16 15800016 missense possibly damaging 0.67
IGL03053:Prkdc APN 16 15834166 missense probably benign 0.02
IGL03071:Prkdc APN 16 15799984 missense probably benign 0.01
IGL03091:Prkdc APN 16 15705310 splice site probably benign
IGL03100:Prkdc APN 16 15713635 missense probably benign 0.08
IGL03128:Prkdc APN 16 15700744 splice site probably benign
IGL03168:Prkdc APN 16 15834166 missense probably benign 0.02
IGL03204:Prkdc APN 16 15769801 missense probably benign 0.01
IGL03390:Prkdc APN 16 15670626 nonsense probably null
anhimid UTSW 16 15725461 critical splice donor site probably null
Bushtit UTSW 16 15752764 missense probably damaging 0.97
clover UTSW 16 15702157 splice site probably benign
crackle UTSW 16 15786050 critical splice donor site probably null
daffy UTSW 16 15829697 missense possibly damaging 0.86
Elmer_fudd UTSW 16 15808058 missense probably benign 0.01
hobgoblin UTSW 16 15815986 missense probably damaging 1.00
liming UTSW 16 15752829 nonsense probably null
Schreier UTSW 16 15670528 missense probably benign 0.00
screamer UTSW 16 15831282 nonsense probably null
screamer10 UTSW 16 15768025 missense probably damaging 0.98
screamer2 UTSW 16 15652552 critical splice donor site probably null
screamer3 UTSW 16 15740332 critical splice donor site probably null
screamer4 UTSW 16 15783079 missense probably benign 0.00
screamer5 UTSW 16 15687404 missense probably benign
screamer7 UTSW 16 15654817 splice site probably null
Screamer8 UTSW 16 15719433 missense probably benign 0.00
Screamer9 UTSW 16 15734922 missense probably benign 0.01
Tweetie UTSW 16 15717801 missense probably damaging 1.00
updock UTSW 16 15795094 missense probably benign
ANU23:Prkdc UTSW 16 15667731 missense possibly damaging 0.67
R0008:Prkdc UTSW 16 15708701 splice site probably benign
R0018:Prkdc UTSW 16 15726542 missense probably benign 0.03
R0018:Prkdc UTSW 16 15726542 missense probably benign 0.03
R0069:Prkdc UTSW 16 15726504 missense probably benign 0.03
R0125:Prkdc UTSW 16 15699007 missense probably damaging 0.98
R0131:Prkdc UTSW 16 15713653 missense probably benign 0.09
R0131:Prkdc UTSW 16 15713653 missense probably benign 0.09
R0132:Prkdc UTSW 16 15713653 missense probably benign 0.09
R0137:Prkdc UTSW 16 15740332 critical splice donor site probably null
R0334:Prkdc UTSW 16 15736799 missense probably benign 0.00
R0373:Prkdc UTSW 16 15791927 missense probably damaging 1.00
R0485:Prkdc UTSW 16 15833740 missense probably damaging 0.97
R0511:Prkdc UTSW 16 15831282 nonsense probably null
R0538:Prkdc UTSW 16 15833788 missense probably damaging 1.00
R0595:Prkdc UTSW 16 15808088 missense probably damaging 1.00
R0607:Prkdc UTSW 16 15772057 missense probably damaging 0.98
R0616:Prkdc UTSW 16 15690407 missense probably damaging 1.00
R0630:Prkdc UTSW 16 15810801 missense probably damaging 1.00
R0694:Prkdc UTSW 16 15768637 missense probably damaging 1.00
R0702:Prkdc UTSW 16 15785971 missense possibly damaging 0.95
R0965:Prkdc UTSW 16 15829716 missense probably benign
R1027:Prkdc UTSW 16 15650712 missense possibly damaging 0.80
R1029:Prkdc UTSW 16 15654749 splice site probably benign
R1033:Prkdc UTSW 16 15767951 missense probably damaging 1.00
R1067:Prkdc UTSW 16 15752782 missense probably damaging 0.99
R1116:Prkdc UTSW 16 15783079 missense probably benign 0.00
R1187:Prkdc UTSW 16 15759746 missense probably damaging 0.98
R1226:Prkdc UTSW 16 15673997 missense possibly damaging 0.80
R1279:Prkdc UTSW 16 15690282 missense probably damaging 1.00
R1304:Prkdc UTSW 16 15759723 missense probably damaging 0.99
R1314:Prkdc UTSW 16 15664227 missense possibly damaging 0.68
R1351:Prkdc UTSW 16 15667700 missense possibly damaging 0.62
R1509:Prkdc UTSW 16 15731566 missense probably damaging 1.00
R1512:Prkdc UTSW 16 15687404 missense probably benign
R1531:Prkdc UTSW 16 15772106 missense probably benign 0.01
R1579:Prkdc UTSW 16 15675328 missense probably benign 0.00
R1669:Prkdc UTSW 16 15734058 missense probably damaging 1.00
R1682:Prkdc UTSW 16 15676989 missense probably benign 0.19
R1713:Prkdc UTSW 16 15795094 missense probably benign
R1762:Prkdc UTSW 16 15637961 missense probably benign
R1789:Prkdc UTSW 16 15739524 missense probably damaging 1.00
R1822:Prkdc UTSW 16 15759605 missense probably damaging 1.00
R1848:Prkdc UTSW 16 15808058 missense probably benign 0.01
R1887:Prkdc UTSW 16 15829635 missense probably benign 0.00
R1891:Prkdc UTSW 16 15725436 missense probably benign 0.02
R1921:Prkdc UTSW 16 15714215 missense possibly damaging 0.80
R1922:Prkdc UTSW 16 15714266 missense probably benign 0.00
R1929:Prkdc UTSW 16 15654817 splice site probably null
R1939:Prkdc UTSW 16 15835913 missense possibly damaging 0.95
R2021:Prkdc UTSW 16 15677009 missense probably benign 0.00
R2033:Prkdc UTSW 16 15687352 splice site probably benign
R2056:Prkdc UTSW 16 15727605 missense probably benign 0.03
R2057:Prkdc UTSW 16 15727605 missense probably benign 0.03
R2058:Prkdc UTSW 16 15727605 missense probably benign 0.03
R2082:Prkdc UTSW 16 15715963 missense probably damaging 1.00
R2109:Prkdc UTSW 16 15687390 missense probably benign 0.01
R2124:Prkdc UTSW 16 15719433 missense probably benign 0.00
R2164:Prkdc UTSW 16 15705207 missense probably damaging 1.00
R2174:Prkdc UTSW 16 15734922 missense probably benign 0.01
R2191:Prkdc UTSW 16 15698824 missense probably damaging 1.00
R2270:Prkdc UTSW 16 15654817 splice site probably null
R2271:Prkdc UTSW 16 15654817 splice site probably null
R2272:Prkdc UTSW 16 15654817 splice site probably null
R2356:Prkdc UTSW 16 15684204 missense probably benign
R2852:Prkdc UTSW 16 15652552 critical splice donor site probably null
R3115:Prkdc UTSW 16 15664358 missense probably benign 0.01
R3116:Prkdc UTSW 16 15664358 missense probably benign 0.01
R3499:Prkdc UTSW 16 15768025 missense probably damaging 0.98
R3687:Prkdc UTSW 16 15799967 missense probably benign
R3834:Prkdc UTSW 16 15791946 missense probably damaging 1.00
R3835:Prkdc UTSW 16 15791946 missense probably damaging 1.00
R3961:Prkdc UTSW 16 15829611 splice site probably null
R4151:Prkdc UTSW 16 15816773 missense probably benign
R4233:Prkdc UTSW 16 15835919 missense probably benign 0.11
R4281:Prkdc UTSW 16 15806099 splice site probably null
R4296:Prkdc UTSW 16 15737905 missense probably damaging 0.99
R4344:Prkdc UTSW 16 15768022 missense probably damaging 0.98
R4424:Prkdc UTSW 16 15773739 missense probably damaging 0.98
R4424:Prkdc UTSW 16 15836082 missense probably damaging 1.00
R4497:Prkdc UTSW 16 15700653 missense probably benign 0.43
R4549:Prkdc UTSW 16 15736870 missense possibly damaging 0.89
R4594:Prkdc UTSW 16 15767966 missense possibly damaging 0.64
R4603:Prkdc UTSW 16 15810824 missense probably damaging 0.98
R4615:Prkdc UTSW 16 15663074 missense probably damaging 0.99
R4648:Prkdc UTSW 16 15816774 missense probably benign 0.05
R4662:Prkdc UTSW 16 15734052 missense probably damaging 1.00
R4680:Prkdc UTSW 16 15772030 missense probably benign 0.00
R4700:Prkdc UTSW 16 15702112 missense probably damaging 1.00
R4716:Prkdc UTSW 16 15810837 missense probably benign 0.32
R4720:Prkdc UTSW 16 15667715 missense probably benign
R4785:Prkdc UTSW 16 15648976 missense probably benign 0.21
R4822:Prkdc UTSW 16 15650712 missense possibly damaging 0.80
R4829:Prkdc UTSW 16 15702075 missense possibly damaging 0.80
R4981:Prkdc UTSW 16 15678309 missense probably damaging 1.00
R4989:Prkdc UTSW 16 15673997 missense possibly damaging 0.80
R5059:Prkdc UTSW 16 15838018 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5074:Prkdc UTSW 16 15772048 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5115:Prkdc UTSW 16 15790580 missense probably benign
R5151:Prkdc UTSW 16 15716035 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5165:Prkdc UTSW 16 15678272 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5215:Prkdc UTSW 16 15772121 missense possibly damaging 0.64
R5270:Prkdc UTSW 16 15734955 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5278:Prkdc UTSW 16 15714974 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5351:Prkdc UTSW 16 15831312 missense probably benign 0.03
R5416:Prkdc UTSW 16 15805950 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5418:Prkdc UTSW 16 15795097 missense probably benign 0.20
R5437:Prkdc UTSW 16 15769875 missense possibly damaging 0.46
R5452:Prkdc UTSW 16 15768637 missense possibly damaging 0.96
R5518:Prkdc UTSW 16 15678308 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5538:Prkdc UTSW 16 15651469 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5589:Prkdc UTSW 16 15706791 missense probably benign 0.02
R5618:Prkdc UTSW 16 15809612 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5640:Prkdc UTSW 16 15829769 missense possibly damaging 0.86
R5661:Prkdc UTSW 16 15810770 missense possibly damaging 0.81
R5771:Prkdc UTSW 16 15664233 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5772:Prkdc UTSW 16 15779388 missense possibly damaging 0.49
R5783:Prkdc UTSW 16 15717801 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5792:Prkdc UTSW 16 15816752 missense probably damaging 1.00
R5797:Prkdc UTSW 16 15737834 nonsense probably null
R5826:Prkdc UTSW 16 15734098 missense probably benign
R5883:Prkdc UTSW 16 15715914 missense probably benign
R5895:Prkdc UTSW 16 15752829 nonsense probably null
R5998:Prkdc UTSW 16 15783157 missense probably damaging 1.00
R6000:Prkdc UTSW 16 15829697 missense possibly damaging 0.86
R6120:Prkdc UTSW 16 15739471 missense probably benign 0.00
R6145:Prkdc UTSW 16 15772073 missense probably damaging 1.00
R6209:Prkdc UTSW 16 15790592 missense probably damaging 1.00
R6293:Prkdc UTSW 16 15787155 missense probably benign 0.00
R6321:Prkdc UTSW 16 15714919 missense probably benign
R6376:Prkdc UTSW 16 15769885 missense probably benign 0.06
R6387:Prkdc UTSW 16 15698815 missense probably benign 0.01
R6406:Prkdc UTSW 16 15717801 missense probably damaging 1.00
R6469:Prkdc UTSW 16 15795075 missense probably benign 0.10
R6486:Prkdc UTSW 16 15752764 missense probably damaging 0.97
R6665:Prkdc UTSW 16 15786050 critical splice donor site probably null
R6703:Prkdc UTSW 16 15670528 missense probably benign 0.00
R6774:Prkdc UTSW 16 15725461 critical splice donor site probably null
R6854:Prkdc UTSW 16 15651538 missense probably damaging 1.00
R6878:Prkdc UTSW 16 15777072 missense probably benign 0.31
R6882:Prkdc UTSW 16 15783263 critical splice donor site probably null
R6882:Prkdc UTSW 16 15808156 missense probably benign 0.33
R6949:Prkdc UTSW 16 15799989 missense probably benign
R6950:Prkdc UTSW 16 15815986 missense probably damaging 1.00
R7019:Prkdc UTSW 16 15769966 missense probably benign 0.00
R7064:Prkdc UTSW 16 15790453 missense probably benign 0.00
R7097:Prkdc UTSW 16 15689343 missense probably damaging 1.00
R7201:Prkdc UTSW 16 15698803 missense probably benign 0.12
R7235:Prkdc UTSW 16 15714263 missense probably benign
R7283:Prkdc UTSW 16 15717764 missense probably benign 0.00
R7401:Prkdc UTSW 16 15648738 missense probably damaging 1.00
R7525:Prkdc UTSW 16 15672327 missense probably damaging 1.00
R7647:Prkdc UTSW 16 15737943 missense probably damaging 1.00
R7679:Prkdc UTSW 16 15831319 missense probably damaging 1.00
X0023:Prkdc UTSW 16 15740278 missense probably benign
Mode of Inheritance Autosomal Recessive
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Repository
Last Updated 2019-09-04 9:41 PM by Diantha La Vine
Record Created 2016-12-22 9:03 AM
Record Posted 2017-01-05
Phenotypic Description

Figure 1. Screamer6 mice exhibit increased frequencies of peripheral blood effector memory CD4 T cells in CD4 T cells. Flow cytometric analysis of peripheral blood was utilized to determine T cell frequency. Normalized data are shown. Abbreviations: WT, wild-type; REF, homozygous reference mice; HET, heterozygous variant mice; VAR, homozygous variant mice. Mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) are indicated.

Figure 2. Homozygous screamer6 mice exhibit diminished T-dependent IgG responses to recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV)-encoded β-galactosidase (rSFV-β-gal). IgG levels were determined by ELISA. Normalized data are shown. Abbreviations: WT, wild-type; REF, homozygous reference mice; HET, heterozygous variant mice; VAR, homozygous variant mice. Mean (μ) and standard deviation (σ) are indicated.

The screamer6 phenotype was identified among N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutagenized G3 mice of the pedigree R1822, some of which showed an increased frequency of effector memory CD4 T cells in CD4 T cells (Figure 1) and a diminished T-dependent humoral response to recombinant Semliki Forest virus (rSFV)-encoded β-galactosidase (rSFV-β-gal) (Figure 2).

Nature of Mutation

Figure 3. Linkage mapping of the reduced T-dependent IgG responses to rSFV-β-gal using a recessive model of inheritance. Manhattan plot shows -log10 P values (Y-axis) plotted against the chromosome positions of 108 mutations (X-axis) identified in the G1 male of pedigree R1822. Normalized phenotype data are shown for single locus linkage analysis without consideration of G2 dam identity.  Horizontal pink and red lines represent thresholds of P = 0.05, and the threshold for P = 0.05 after applying Bonferroni correction, respectively.

Whole exome HiSeq sequencing of the G1 grandsire identified 108 mutations. Both of the above anomalies were linked by continuous variable mapping to a mutation in Prkdc:  an G to A transition at base pair 15,759,605 (v38) on chromosome 16, or base pair 122,255 in the GenBank genomic region NC_000082 encoding Prkdc. The strongest association was found with a recessive model of linkage to the normalized T-dependent antibody response to rSFV-β-gal, wherein one variant homozygote departed phenotypically from 11 homozygous reference mice and five heterozygous mice with a P value of 6.931 x 10-7 (Figure 3).  

 

The mutation corresponds to residue 7,137 in the mRNA sequence NM_011159 within exon 53 of 86 total exons.

 

7122 TTCCCTCCTCTTGCTGACAGGTTCTTGAATGCT

2367 -F--P--P--L--A--D--R--F--L--N--A-

 

The mutated nucleotide is indicated in red. The mutation results in an aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N) substitution at position 2,372 (D2372N) in the DNA-PKCS protein, and is strongly predicted by PolyPhen-2 to be damaging (score = 1.000).

Protein Prediction

Figure 4. Domain structure of DNA-PKCS.  The DNA-PKCS protein has three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) that are involved in protein-protein interactions such as with the Ku70/Ku80 heterodimer to form the DNA-PK complex. The catalytic site is within the PIKK domain at the C-terminus. FAT domains flank the PI3K/PI4K (PIKK) domain. The N-terminus has three HEAT repeats. The location of the screamer6 mutation is indicated. This image is interactive; click on each mutation to view more information.

The 12,674 base pair Prkdc transcript encodes the 4,128 amino acid, 471 kDa catalytic subunit of the DNA-PK complex, DNA-PKCS. DNA-PKCS is a serine/threonine kinase and member of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-like kinases (PIKK) family (see worker) [reviewed in (1)]. DNA-PKCS has several domains that are essential for its function (Figure 4). A leucine rich region (LRR, aa 1501-1536) mediates the association of DNA-PKCS with C1D, a DNA-binding nuclear matrix-associated factor. The LRR facilitates the intrinsic binding of DNA-PKCS to DNA (2). The DNA-PKCS protein also contains three tetratricopeptide repeats (TPR) (aa 1720-1753, 2921-2954, 2956-2983) that are proposed to assist in protein-protein interactions.  A 380 amino acid region at the C terminus constitutes the catalytic domain, designated the PIKK domain, of DNA-PKCS (aa 3747-4015) (3). The PIKK domain is flanked by the FAT domain (named for its homology to FRAP, ATM and TRRAP, aa 2884-3539) and a FATC domain (FAT at the extreme C-terminus, aa 4096-4128) (3). The FAT and FATC domains occur in combination in all PIKK family members. The C-terminal region containing the FATC domain is essential for the kinase activity of DNA-PKCS (4-6). The N-terminal portion of the protein up to the FAT domain consists of HEAT (Huntingtin, Elongation factor 3, A subunit of protein phosphatase 2A and TOR1) repeats (amino acids 288-323, 1001-1037, and 1050-1086) (7). HEAT repeats are helical structural repeats that mediate protein-protein interactions (8). The screamer6 mutation results in an aspartic acid (D) to asparagine (N) substitution at position 2,372 (D2372N). Amino acid 857 is within an undefined region preceeding the KIP-binding region.

 

Please see the record clover for information about Prkdc.

Putative Mechanism

DNA-PKCS is the catalytic subunit of the DNA-PK complex and is essential for DNA double-strand break repair during nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ) and during the assembly of immune receptor genes (i.e., V(D)J recombination) in developing lymphocytes. Mutations in Prkdc are linked to severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) in several animal models, a condition marked by lymphopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia, and impaired T and B cell-mediated functions (e.g. defective V(D)J recombination and reduced numbers of peripheral lymphocytes) (9-11). Mutations in Prkdc also exhibit uncapped telomeres and a large number of telomeric fusions, leading to genomic instability (9;12;13). In a spontaneous mouse model of SCID, a DNA-PKCS point mutation resulting in the loss of 83 C-terminal amino acids, a reduction in protein expression, and a block in lymphocyte development has been identified (14). The phenotypes in the screamer6 mice indicate a loss of function in DNA-PKCSscreamer6. 

Primers PCR Primer
screamer6_pcr_F: TGGACGTGTTCCTGGGATTAAC
screamer6_pcr_R: TGCTCGACAAAGTACAACTTCC

Sequencing Primer
screamer6_seq_F: GGTTTCAGCCCTTAACATAGTG
screamer6_seq_R: AAGTACAACTTCCAGACAAAGTGTC
Genotyping

PCR program

1) 94°C 2:00
2) 94°C 0:30
3) 55°C 0:30
4) 72°C 1:00
5) repeat steps (2-4) 40x
6) 72°C 10:00
7) 4°C hold


The following sequence of 408 nucleotides is amplified (chromosome 16, + strand):


1   tggacgtgtt cctgggatta acttaaatta ttaaaataaa ttttggtttc agcccttaac
61  atagtgttct acttttatgt gtttgaaagg aaacttaatt tttcaggtga tagcagagtt
121 ggtatgtgaa ctggttataa aacaactgaa gcaacatcaa aatactatgg aagacaaatt
181 tattgtttgc ttaaacaaaa tagcgaaggg cttccctcct cttgctgaca ggtaagggac
241 agtggcagga ggcctgggac atgggtagga ggtgtgggag catatcagcc cccatcttct
301 catgaacctc tctacctcca caggttcttg aatgctttgt tctttctgct gccaaaattt
361 catggagtaa tgaagacact ttgtctggaa gttgtacttt gtcgagca


Primer binding sites are underlined and the sequencing primers are highlighted; the mutated nucleotide is shown in red.

References
Science Writers Anne Murray
Illustrators Katherine Timer
AuthorsJin Huk Choi, Xue Zhong, and Bruce Beutler