|Coordinate||19,957,028 bp (GRCm38)|
|Base Change||C ⇒ T (forward strand)|
|Gene Name||kelch-like 6|
|Chromosomal Location||19,946,496-19,983,037 bp (-)|
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the kelch-like (KLHL) family of proteins, which is involved in B-lymphocyte antigen receptor signaling and germinal-center B-cell maturation. The encoded protein contains an N-terminal broad-complex, tramtrack and bric a brac (BTB) domain that facilitates protein binding and dimerization, a BTB and C-terminal kelch (BACK) domain, and six C-terminal kelch repeat domains. Naturally occurring mutations in this gene are associated with chronic lymphocytic leukemia. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2017]
PHENOTYPE: Mice homozygous for a knock-out allele exhibit spleen hypoplasia, defects in mature B-cell subsets with normal pro- and pre-B-cell development, severely impaired antigen-dependent germinal center formation, and reduced memory IgG response. [provided by MGI curators]
|Amino Acid Change||Arginine changed to Histidine|
|Institutional Source||Beutler Lab|
|Gene Model||predicted gene model for protein(s): [ENSMUSP00000053023] [ENSMUSP00000130755]|
AA Change: R260H
|Predicted Effect||probably damaging
PolyPhen 2 Score 0.978 (Sensitivity: 0.76; Specificity: 0.96)
|Predicted Effect||noncoding transcript|
|Meta Mutation Damage Score||0.3154|
|Is this an essential gene?||Probably nonessential (E-score: 0.101)|
|Candidate Explorer Status||CE: excellent candidate; human score: 0.5; ML prob: 0.556|
Linkage Analysis Data
|Alleles Listed at MGI|
|Mode of Inheritance||Unknown|
|Last Updated||2019-09-04 9:31 PM by Diantha La Vine|
|Record Created||2019-01-22 12:32 PM by Bruce Beutler|
The heights phenotype was identified among N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU)-mutagenized G3 mice of the pedigree R4824, some of which showed increased frequencies of T cells (Figure 1) and CD4+ T cells (Figure 2) in the peripheral blood.
|Nature of Mutation|
Whole exome HiSeq sequencing of the G1 grandsire identified 108 mutations. The B1 cell phenotype was linked by continuous variable mapping to mutations in two genes on chromosome 16: Cebpd and Klhl6. The mutation in Klhl6 was presumed causative as the immune phenotypes observed in heights mice mimics that of other Klhl6 mutant alleles. The Klhl6 mutation is a G to A transition at base pair 19,957,028 (v38) on chromosome 16, or base pair 26,082 in the GenBank genomic region NC_000082 encoding Klhl6. The strongest association was found with a recessive model of inheritance to the CD4+ T cell phenotype, wherein two variant homozygotes mice departed phenotypically from six homozygous reference mice and 10 heterozygous with a P value of 6.508 x 10-5 (Figure 3).
The mutation corresponds to residue 885 in the mRNA sequence NM_183390 within exon 3 of 7 total exons.
The mutated nucleotide is indicated in red. The mutation results in an arginine to histidine substitution at position 260 (R260H) in the KLHL6 protein, and is strongly predicted by Polyphen-2 to cause loss of function (score = 0.978).
KLHL6 is a member of the Kelch-like family (see the record for teeny for information about KBTBD2, another Kelch-like family member). Similar to other Kelch-like family members, KLHL6 has a Bric-a-brac, Tramtrack, Broad-complex (BTB) domain at the N-terminus, a BACK domain, and a kelch repeat region at the C-terminus (KLHL6 has five or six kelch repeats) (Figure 4) (1). BTB domains facilitate protein-protein interactions, the BACK domain has no known function, and Kelch domains form a tertiary structure of β-propellers that have a role in extracellular functions, morphology, and binding to other proteins.
The heights mutation results in an arginine to histidine substitution at position 260 (R260H); amino acid 260 is within the BACK domain.
KLHL6 has putative functions in B cell receptor-associated signal transduction and germinal center responses (2). Loss of KLHL6 expression results in impaired transitional B cell survival and differentiation (3). Klhl6-deficient (Klhl6-/-) mice exhibited impaired B cell development past the immature stage, reduced numbers of B220+ and CD3- B cells in the spleen and peripheral blood, reduced numbers of follicular B cells in the lymph nodes, reduced spleen weight, spleen hypoplasia, impaired germinal center formation, and impaired memory IgG responses (2). Mice homozygous for an ENU-induced Klhl6 mutation (W267*) exhibited increased numbers of immature B cells, but reduced numbers of mature B cells (MGI).
Putative functions for KLHL6 in T cells has not been described. The role of KLHL6 in B cells is unknown, but it may contribute to cell proliferation and cell survival through interactions with proteins (e.g., HBXIP and Cul3) (3). The phenotype observed in the heights mice indicate loss of KLHL6-associated function in T cells.
1) 94°C 2:00
The following sequence of 415 nucleotides is amplified (chromosome 16, - strand):
1 ttggacagtt taaagatgca agtccaaagt tacatcattc aaaactttgt tcagattctg
Primer binding sites are underlined and the sequencing primers are highlighted; the mutated nucleotide is shown in red.
1. Gupta-Rossi, N., Storck, S., Griebel, P. J., Reynaud, C. A., Weill, J. C., and Dahan, A. (2003) Specific Over-Expression of Deltex and a New Kelch-Like Protein in Human Germinal Center B Cells. Mol Immunol. 39, 791-799.
2. Kroll, J., Shi, X., Caprioli, A., Liu, H. H., Waskow, C., Lin, K. M., Miyazaki, T., Rodewald, H. R., and Sato, T. N. (2005) The BTB-Kelch Protein KLHL6 is Involved in B-Lymphocyte Antigen Receptor Signaling and Germinal Center Formation. Mol Cell Biol. 25, 8531-8540.
|Science Writers||Anne Murray|
|Illustrators||Diantha La Vine|
|Authors||Xue Zhong, Jin Huk Choi, and Bruce Beutler|