|Coordinate||78,570,743 bp (GRCm38)|
|Base Change||G ⇒ T (forward strand)|
|Gene Name||Rac family small GTPase 2|
|Chromosomal Location||78,559,167-78,572,783 bp (-)|
FUNCTION: [Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] This gene encodes a member of the Ras superfamily of small guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-metabolizing proteins. The encoded protein localizes to the plasma membrane, where it regulates diverse processes, such as secretion, phagocytosis, and cell polarization. Activity of this protein is also involved in the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mutations in this gene are associated with neutrophil immunodeficiency syndrome. There is a pseudogene for this gene on chromosome 6. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2013]
PHENOTYPE: Homozygotes for a targeted null mutation exhibit peripheral blood lymphocytosis, reductions in peritoneal B-1a lymphocytes, marginal zone lymphocytes, and IgM-secreting plasma cells, decreased levels of serum IgM and IgA, and abnormal T cell migration. [provided by MGI curators]
|Limits of the Critical Region||78559169 - 78572783 bp|
|Amino Acid Change||Tyrosine changed to Stop codon|
|Institutional Source||Beutler Lab|
|Gene Model||predicted gene model for protein(s): [ENSMUSP00000036384] [ENSMUSP00000154826]|
AA Change: Y32*
|Predicted Effect||probably null|
|Predicted Effect||probably null|
|Meta Mutation Damage Score||0.9755|
|Is this an essential gene?||Non Essential (E-score: 0.000)|
|Candidate Explorer Status||CE: excellent candidate; Verification probability: 0.88; ML prob: 0.828; human score: 4|
Linkage Analysis Data
|Alleles Listed at MGI|
|Mode of Inheritance||Autosomal Recessive|
|Last Updated||2020-07-29 6:45 PM by External Program|
|Record Created||2016-06-23 10:49 PM by Jin Huk Choi|
The potter phenotype was identified among G3 mice of the pedigree R4436, some of which showed an increased frequency of neutrophils (Figure 1), a reduced frequency of B cells (Figure 2), a reduced frequency of IgM+ B cells (Figure 3), a reduced frequency of B1a cells in B1 cells (Figure 4), and an increased frequency of B1b cells in B1 cells (Figure 5), all in the peripheral blood. Some mice also exhibited a diminished T-independent antibody response to 4-hydroxy-3-nitrophenylacetyl-Ficoll (NP-Ficoll) (Figure 6).
|Nature of Mutation|
Whole exome HiSeq sequencing of the G1 grandsire identified 53 mutations. All of the above anomalies were linked by continuous variable mapping to a mutation in Rac2: a C to A transversion at base pair 78,570,743 (v38) on chromosome 15, or base pair 2,041 in the GenBank genomic region NC_000081 encoding Rac2. The strongest association was found with a recessive model of linkage to the normalized frequency of peripheral blood neutrophils, wherein two variant homozygotes departed phenotypically from 11 homozygous reference mice and 10 heterozygous mice with a P value of 2.941 x 10-7 (Figure 7). A substantial semidominant effect was observed in most of the assays but the mutation is preponderantly recessive, and in no assay was a purely dominant effect observed.
The mutation corresponds to residue 234 in the mRNA sequence NM_009008 within exon 2 of 7 total exons.
The mutated nucleotide is indicated in red. The mutation results in substitution of tyrosine 32 for a premature stop codon (Y32*) in the RAC2 protein.
|Illustration of Mutations in
Gene & Protein
Rac2 is a member of the Rac subfamily of Rho guanosine triphosphatases (Rho GTPases). Rho GTPases have several conserved domains including five GTP binding and hydrolysis domains (G-boxes; G1-G5), two switch regions (switch I and II), a polybasic domain, and a prenylation site [Figure 8; (1)]. G-boxes function in GDP binding and exhibit GTPase activity (2). In Rac2, these regions correspond to amino acids 10-17 (G1), Thr35 (G2), 57-61 (G3), and 115-118 (G4), and 157-160 (G5). The Rac proteins each have two highly conserved switch regions, switch I (amino acids 27-40) and switch II (amino acids 56-71), situated on either side of the bound nucleotide. Both switch regions are sites of interactions between the Rac proteins and guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) and guanine nucleotide-dissociation inhibitors (GDIs) as well as with downstream protein targets (3). The polybasic region of Rac2 (RQQKRP; amino acids 183-188) is required for its function as a regulator of NAPDH oxidase.
The mutation in potter results in substitution of tyrosine 32 for a premature stop codon (Y32*). Amino acid 32 is within the G2 domain.
For more information about Rac2, please see the record for bingo.
Rho GTPases integrate receptor-mediated signals through binding to effectors and regulators of the actin cytoskeleton and affect multiple cellular activities including cell morphology, polarity, migration, proliferation, apoptosis, phagocytosis, cytokinesis, adhesion, vesicular transport, and transcription. Rac2 functions in actin polymerization resulting in lamellopodial extension and membrane ruffling, directed migration, chemotaxis, and superoxide (O2−) production in phagocytic cells as well as cytoskeleton organization in red blood cells and osteoclasts (4-9). The Rac proteins regulate leukocyte migration by transducing signals from cell surface receptors (e.g., the Fcγ receptor, formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP) receptor, and β2 integrins) to the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons through cytoplasmic effectors (e.g., tyrosine kinases, scaffolding/adapter proteins, nucleotide exchange proteins, and phosphatases) upon binding of GTP (10).
The potter mice exhibited increased frequency of B1 cells and B1b cells as well as a reduced frequency of B1a cells in B1 cells in the peripheral blood. Rac2 is required for B cell development as well as for either B cell receptor (BCR) signal transduction and subsequent calcium mobilization or in determining the efficiency of BCR ligation (11;12). Rac2-deficient (Rac2-/-) mice exhibit a 30% reduction in B cell numbers due mainly be a reduced number of recirculating B lymphocytes in the bone marrow (11). Rac2-/- mice also display a lack of peritoneal B1 and marginal zone B cells (11). In the peripheral blood, Rac2-/- mice had an increase in total leukocyte number including both B and T cells (11). B cell numbers were reduced in the spleen due to a loss of mature and/or marginal zone B cells (11). In humans, mutations in RAC2 are linked to neutrophil (alternatively, phagocytic) immunodeficiency syndrome [NIS; OMIM: #608203; (13-15)] and decreased numbers of peripheral T and B cells. Patients with NIS have severe, recurrent infections, poor wound healing, and exhibit reduced neutrophil migration, azurophilic granule secretion, and superoxide production (13-15).
The alterations in the frequencies of B1, B1b, and B1a cells in B1 cells indicate a loss of Rac2potter function; however, some Rac2 function may remain or Rac1 may be compensating for the loss of Rac2 function and/or expression as other Rac2-/--associated phenotypes were not observed in the potter mice.
1) 94°C 2:00
The following sequence of 460 nucleotides is amplified (chromosome 15, - strand):
1 tctttatggg cactgcacgg ggtagagcac actggtatgg ggtgtctggg attgggagac
Primer binding sites are underlined and the sequencing primers are highlighted; the mutated nucleotide is shown in red.
1. Hirshberg, M., Stockley, R. W., Dodson, G., and Webb, M. R. (1997) The Crystal Structure of Human rac1, a Member of the Rho-Family Complexed with a GTP Analogue. Nat Struct Biol. 4, 147-152.
2. Bourne, H. R., Sanders, D. A., and McCormick, F. (1991) The GTPase Superfamily: Conserved Structure and Molecular Mechanism. Nature. 349, 117-127.
3. Yamauchi, A., Marchal, C. C., Molitoris, J., Pech, N., Knaus, U., Towe, J., Atkinson, S. J., and Dinauer, M. C. (2005) Rac GTPase Isoform-Specific Regulation of NADPH Oxidase and Chemotaxis in Murine Neutrophils in Vivo. Role of the C-Terminal Polybasic Domain. J Biol Chem. 280, 953-964.
4. Gu, Y., Filippi, M. D., Cancelas, J. A., Siefring, J. E., Williams, E. P., Jasti, A. C., Harris, C. E., Lee, A. W., Prabhakar, R., Atkinson, S. J., Kwiatkowski, D. J., and Williams, D. A. (2003) Hematopoietic Cell Regulation by Rac1 and Rac2 Guanosine Triphosphatases. Science. 302, 445-449.
5. Kalfa, T. A., Pushkaran, S., Mohandas, N., Hartwig, J. H., Fowler, V. M., Johnson, J. F., Joiner, C. H., Williams, D. A., and Zheng, Y. (2006) Rac GTPases Regulate the Morphology and Deformability of the Erythrocyte Cytoskeleton. Blood. 108, 3637-3645.
6. Itokowa, T., Zhu, M. L., Troiano, N., Bian, J., Kawano, T., and Insogna, K. (2011) Osteoclasts Lacking Rac2 have Defective Chemotaxis and Resorptive Activity. Calcif Tissue Int. 88, 75-86.
7. Roberts, A. W., Kim, C., Zhen, L., Lowe, J. B., Kapur, R., Petryniak, B., Spaetti, A., Pollock, J. D., Borneo, J. B., Bradford, G. B., Atkinson, S. J., Dinauer, M. C., and Williams, D. A. (1999) Deficiency of the Hematopoietic Cell-Specific Rho Family GTPase Rac2 is Characterized by Abnormalities in Neutrophil Function and Host Defense. Immunity. 10, 183-196.
8. Yang, F. C., Atkinson, S. J., Gu, Y., Borneo, J. B., Roberts, A. W., Zheng, Y., Pennington, J., and Williams, D. A. (2001) Rac and Cdc42 GTPases Control Hematopoietic Stem Cell Shape, Adhesion, Migration, and Mobilization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 98, 5614-5618.
9. Yang, F. C., Kapur, R., King, A. J., Tao, W., Kim, C., Borneo, J., Breese, R., Marshall, M., Dinauer, M. C., and Williams, D. A. (2000) Rac2 Stimulates Akt Activation Affecting BAD/Bcl-XL Expression while Mediating Survival and Actin Function in Primary Mast Cells. Immunity. 12, 557-568.
10. Wheeler, A. P., Wells, C. M., Smith, S. D., Vega, F. M., Henderson, R. B., Tybulewicz, V. L., and Ridley, A. J. (2006) Rac1 and Rac2 Regulate Macrophage Morphology but are Not Essential for Migration. J Cell Sci. 119, 2749-2757.
11. Croker, B. A., Tarlinton, D. M., Cluse, L. A., Tuxen, A. J., Light, A., Yang, F. C., Williams, D. A., and Roberts, A. W. (2002) The Rac2 Guanosine Triphosphatase Regulates B Lymphocyte Antigen Receptor Responses and Chemotaxis and is Required for Establishment of B-1a and Marginal Zone B Lymphocytes. J Immunol. 168, 3376-3386.
12. Walmsley, M. J., Ooi, S. K., Reynolds, L. F., Smith, S. H., Ruf, S., Mathiot, A., Vanes, L., Williams, D. A., Cancro, M. P., and Tybulewicz, V. L. (2003) Critical Roles for Rac1 and Rac2 GTPases in B Cell Development and Signaling. Science. 302, 459-462.
13. Williams, D. A., Tao, W., Yang, F., Kim, C., Gu, Y., Mansfield, P., Levine, J. E., Petryniak, B., Derrow, C. W., Harris, C., Jia, B., Zheng, Y., Ambruso, D. R., Lowe, J. B., Atkinson, S. J., Dinauer, M. C., and Boxer, L. (2000) Dominant Negative Mutation of the Hematopoietic-Specific Rho GTPase, Rac2, is Associated with a Human Phagocyte Immunodeficiency. Blood. 96, 1646-1654.
14. Ambruso, D. R., Knall, C., Abell, A. N., Panepinto, J., Kurkchubasche, A., Thurman, G., Gonzalez-Aller, C., Hiester, A., deBoer, M., Harbeck, R. J., Oyer, R., Johnson, G. L., and Roos, D. (2000) Human Neutrophil Immunodeficiency Syndrome is Associated with an Inhibitory Rac2 Mutation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 97, 4654-4659.
|Science Writers||Anne Murray|
|Authors||Jin Huk Choi, James Butler, Bruce Beutler|